Efficacité énergétique et tourisme conjugués en Tunisie

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  • strict warning: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/date/date/date.theme on line 271.
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  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/views.module on line 838.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_display::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/plugins/views_plugin_display.inc on line 1707.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_display_block::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin_display::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/plugins/views_plugin_display_block.inc on line 184.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_broken::ui_name() should be compatible with views_handler::ui_name($short = false) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 590.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 193.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort_broken::ui_name() should be compatible with views_handler::ui_name($short = false) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 82.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 584.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 584.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_broken::ui_name() should be compatible with views_handler::ui_name($short = false) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 608.
  • warning: Creating default object from empty value in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/date/date/date.module on line 638.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/views.module on line 838.
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  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/views.module on line 838.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_display_page::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin_display::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/plugins/views_plugin_display_page.inc on line 479.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/views.module on line 838.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/modules/views1/views.module on line 838.
  • : Function spliti() is deprecated in /home/eurojar/public_html/sites/all/themes/pev/views-view-table--partenaireslinks-view.tpl.php on line 31.
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09/04/2010


Alors que le secteur du tourisme représente une part très importante de l’économie tunisienne et que le pays est un importateur net d’énergie, le projet pilote Green Hill Resort a voulu faire d’une pierre deux coups en édifiant un éco-hôtel à Beni M’Tir, un projet pilote inclus dans le programme régional MED-ENEC.


Julien Théron, Eurojar

En Tunisie, 5,8% du produit intérieur brut sont constitués par le secteur touristique. Un chiffre très important, dû notamment à sa proximité avec l’Europe et à son climat. L’impact sur le développement local est d’autant plus important que 350 000 emplois dépendent directement ou indirectement de ce secteur qui constitue 13% des exportations de biens et services. Pourtant, deux phénomènes majeurs ont amené les dirigeants à repenser cette activité au cours de la dernière décennie : l’attentat de Djerba, en 2002, ainsi que l’arrivée sur le marché d’autres destinations attractives. Afin d’accroître la compétitivité du secteur, la Tunisie a élaboré une stratégie visant à le diversifier et à en améliorer les prestations.

Par ailleurs, Khalifa Tounakti, du Ministère de la Commerce et de l’Artisanat, s’inquiétait en 2007 d’une croissance du déficit énergétique tunisien. Celui-ci nécessite un subventionnement qui s’élevait à près d’un milliard de dollars en 2005 avec plusieurs révisions successives de prix par an. Le pays a alors mis l’accent sur une politique énergétique visant à minimiser les coûts et à améliorer son bilan. Le but est notamment de mieux maitriser la consommation énergétique en ayant recours à divers moyens (audits, sensibilisation, amélioration des rendements, utilisation des énergies renouvelables, etc.).

Green Hill Resort: un concept original
C’est en visitant le site du futur complexe touristique Green Hill que Faiez Rouissi, partenaire, architecte et développeur du programme, a eu l’idée d’ajouter une valeur écologique au projet. Il fut attiré par des conditions environnementales particulièrement favorables, regroupant «écosystème particulier, exposition adéquate, existence de la source thermale la plus chaude de Tunisie (73°C).»

Le projet réunissait alors toutes les conditions pour s’inscrire à la fois dans la diversification touristique et dans la maîtrise de l’énergie, concept qui est au cœur du programme régional de l’Union Européenne MED-ENEC dont a bénéficié le Green Hill Resort.

Le complexe hôtelier s’est donc créé dans cette double dynamique, en se fondant sur cinq éléments (la terre, l’eau, le feu, l’air et le métal) afin d’allier l’image vertueuse de l’écotourisme à la recherche technique de l’efficacité énergétique.

Trois volets ont été mis en place pour ce faire: une architecture bioclimatique (orientation, condensation de l’habitat, ombrage, isolation), la géothermie (pompes à chaleur) et l’énergie solaire (électricité, climatisation). Certes, seuls trois chalets sont concernés par le projet, alors que le complexe touristique en intègre dix-huit, ainsi qu’une station thermale, une salle polyvalente, trois restaurants, ainsi que deux piscines thermales de plein air. Mais l’objectif réside ailleurs.

L’environnement, une opportunité pour le secteur touristique
L’idée est de promouvoir les énergies renouvelables en développant le plus de types possibles et pas uniquement les plus rentables. Le surcoût des équipements frôle ainsi les 100%, rendant difficile l’application des mesures à tous les bâtiments, mais la visibilité commerciale est très importante: ses exploitants misent sur l’image très positive de l’intégration de technologies respectueuses de l’environnement auprès de la clientèle. Par ailleurs, dans un but de recherche, les résultats généraux du projet pilote intègrent la présentation d’une solution d’optimalité économique, facilitant ainsi l’application de certaines techniques développées à d’autres sites d’écotourisme ou même à des logements privatifs.

La démonstration technique est réussie puisque les bâtiments équipés atteignent quasiment une consommation nulle en énergie, et peuvent se targuer ainsi d’être pratiquement neutre en terme de rejet de CO2. L’évolution des technologies sur le marché des équipements de construction pourra peut-être d’ailleurs permettre à l’avenir une exploitation complète à plus grande échelle. Et au niveau politique, Faiez Rouissi l’avoue bien volontiers: «le soutien européen a été très positif puisque l'efficience énergétique est devenue une priorité nationale.»

Si, en tant que développeur, il agrée le fait que «c'est beaucoup de fatigue et de tracasserie administrative vu que c'est un projet pilote et que l'administration n'est pas outillée pour les particularités», il admet qu’en tant qu’architecte, «l’expérience est exaltante. » Et l’exemple donné par le Green Hill Resort trace d’ailleurs un sillon derrière lui : « le projet a déjà eu une audience telle que tout le monde veut l’imiter.» Une étude stratégique sur l’écotourisme en Tunisie élaborée en coopération avec l’agence allemande GTZ, qui a fourni l'Assistance Technique pour la mise en œuvre du projet MED-ENEC, est d’ailleurs venue renforcer cette dynamique, en identifiant de nombreux sites et circuits propices au développement de l’écotourisme dans le pays.

Si Faiez Rouissi et ses partenaires peuvent ainsi être vus comme des pionniers de l’écotourisme, leur projet s’intègre dans la tendance actuelle de valorisation des technologies vertes par la Tunisie et ses partenaires euro-méditerranéens, technologies constituant une forte valeur ajoutée dans le secteur très compétitif du tourisme.

Voir le site: MED-ENEC






Vos réactions
omar kanoun, Maroc | 12-04-2010, 12.03h

Il ne fait aucun doute que ce projet est l'un des nouveaux projets, et être un exemple de modèle à suivre dans la région, et sera inévitablement une forte dynamique du secteur du tourisme tout en préservant l'environnement et d'économie d'énergie.